由于vs2010 不像 windows sdk 自身不带调试器具的
查看qt 文档：Debugging executables built with the Microsoft Visual Studio compilers in Qt Creator
Qt Creator uses the cdb.exe command line debugger provided with the Debugging Tools for Windows package as part of the Windows SDK.
As of Microsoft Visual Studio 2012, the Windows Kit 8 is installed along with Visual Studio. Make sure you check the Debugging Tools for Windows component in the installer. The debuggers are typically located in c:\Program Files (x86)\Windows Kits\8.0\Debugger .
For the older Windows SDKs, such as Windows SDK 7.1, the Debugging Tools for Windows where shipped as a separate installer on the ISO-image of the SDKs. The debuggers are typically located in c:\Program Files (x86)\Debugging Tools for Windows or c:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows .
After installation, the debugger should be autodetected and show up in the Kit configuration. If it does not (due to non-standard installation paths), please point the Debugger kit configuration dialog to the location.
The 32bit version of cdb.exe can only debug 32bit executables. The 64bit version can debug both 64bit and 32bit executables, however interrupting a 32bit executable with a 64bit debugger can result in a stacktrace of the Wow64 32bit emulation layer being displayed.
Qt Creator extends the command line debugger by loading an extension library into it (qtcreatorcdbext.dll). This library must be provided for the 32bit and 64bit version of the debugger, in the folders libs\qtcreatorcdbext64 or libs\qtcreatorcdbext32 respectively. If you build a 32bit version of Qt Creator, the 64bit version of the DLL can be obtained from the Binary artifacts repository . This repository also contains the binary win64interrupt.exe which goes to the bin folder of Qt Creator and is used to interrupt 64bit executables from a 32bit-built Qt Creator.
意思是下载windows 调试器（网上有自己搜） 放到目录：
c:\Program Files (x86)\Debugging Tools for Windows 或者 c:\Program Files\Debugging Tools for Windows
qt creator 就能自动检测到了